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reasonable contemplation test

Damages will not be considered It implies that among equals the law should be equal and equally administered. The Constitution of India guarantees the fundamental right to equality under Article 14. consumer-contemplation test. It is a rule which does not allow any discrimination or do the harsh treatment on the people. The criterion for deciding what the defendant must be taken to have had in his or her contemplation as the result of a breach of their contract is a factual one. It is implicit in that it is unequal both according to political, logic, and Constitutional law and is therefore violative of Article 14. Further, the identical treatment in unequal circumstances would amount to inequality. Damages are available for loss which: naturally arises from the breach according the usual course of things; or. Vijaya Gupta | School of Law, Bennett University | 8th September 2020, “Equality is one of the magnificent corner-stones of Indian democracy”[1]. Class legislation makes improper discrimination by conferring particular privileges upon a class of persons. It is seen that under Article 14 classification is based on reasonable classification and prohibits class legislation. Litigation in contemplation The High Court held that the reasonable contemplation or onset of a criminal investigation by the SFO did not necessarily equate to the reasonable contemplation of a prosecution. Translation memories are created by human, but computer aligned, which might cause mistakes. Pellentesque et felis ut nisi dapibus tempor. Cookies help us deliver our services. But in the case of E.P Royappa v. State of Tamil Nadu , the traditional concept of equality i.e. Contract: In contract, the traditional test of remoteness is set out in Hadley v Baxendale ([1854] 9 Ex 341).The test is in essence a test of foreseeability. The Covid -19 pandemic has shuttered world economies ,  put livelihoods... Ashutosh Rajput | Hidayatullah National Law University | 10th May 2020 Be warned. Why mainly Haryana and Punjab's Farmers are protesting against the new Farm law? contained in the last part of the new proposal. The Court asks what the defendant must be taken to have had in his or her contemplation rather than only what he or she actually contemplated. The test is whether injury to that particular plaintiff would have been in the contemplation of the reasonable man Duty of Care Owed to Plaintiff D’s servants negligently pushed X who was attempting to board a moving train and caused him to drop a package containing fireworks. Accordingly, the prospective student may be required to provide documentation from an appropriate professional. A breach of warranty gives rise to a claim for breach of contract – the main remedy being an award of damages. — Also termed consum-er-user The result of this was a new test was created to establish whether or not a duty of care in negligence cases existed. The doctrine of classification which is involved by the Court is not a paraphrase of Article 14 nor is the objective and end of that Article. [1] Indra Sawhney v. Union of India, AIR 1993 SC 477. It is a negative concept which states that the law should be equal and should be equally administered and that the like should be treated alike. This article explains the Doctrine of Double Jeopardy in India. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. By considering what a reasonable man could have foreseen as potential damages or harm to the other party, at the conclusion of the contract, the court can establish the extent of consequential loss to be … In it, the majority held that losses for breach of contract are recoverable if the type or kind of loss is a likely result of the breach of contract. The test may be postponed until the student provides this information. Nunc feugiat mi tellus, a feugiat tempor consequat. Through this article, the author seeks to understand the meaning of 'Reasonable Restrictions' embodied under Article 19 of the Indian Constitution. Found 607 sentences matching phrase "reasonable contemplation".Found in 17 ms. Comments made by the SFO, and the sub-text of ENRC’s interactions with the SFO, made clear that criminal proceedings were possible, if not likely, unless the matter was settled, and therefore within reasonable contemplation. The relevance of the second limb is that the parties can limit their liability at the time of contracting for what would otherwise be … In a software supply agreement, a warranty is usually given that the software will be free from material defects at the time it is delivered. Consumer contemplation test is the method of imposing product liability on a manufacturer, if it is shown with evidence that a product’s danger is higher than what a … Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. contemplation translate: sự trầm ngâm. Under this concept, equal law should be applied to all in the same situation and there should be no discrimination between the people. Further, the Judge took Remoteness limits the ability of a plaintiff to recover damages to only those which are reasonably foreseeable to the parties. Translation memories are created by human, but computer … The case determines that the test of remoteness in contract law is contemplation. Dicey has given three meanings of the Rule of Law: Equal protection of the law is a concept of the 14th Amendment of the American Constitution. [11] The doctrine of Arbitrariness And Legislative Action: A Misconceived Application, Deepika Sharma and Radhika Gupta, NSLR Vol 5 No. It provides equality to all the people irrespective of their caste, religion, race, sex, place of birth. The differentia must have a rational relation to the object sought to be achieved by the Act. It guarantees equality before the law. the reasonable contemplation of the former, carelessness may be likely to cause damages (prima facie duty of care) o 2) Unless there is some policy reason not to have a duty of care Expansion of liability, e.g. Fourth, the test to be applied is an objective one. [10] It was also seen in the case of Malpe Vishwanath v. the State of Maharashtra, all the precedents were used of the old doctrine but gave the judgment based on arbitrariness.[11]. This article has... You have entered an incorrect email address! Dicey. In Hadley, there had been a delay in a carriage (transportation) contract.. Bhagwati J. delivered the judgment on behalf of himself, Chandrachud and Krishna Iyer J.J introduced a new concept of equality. A legislature is entitled to make a reasonable classification for purpose of legislation and treat all in one class on an equal footing. The Supreme Court in Re: Contagious of Covid-19 Virus in Prisons laid out a suo moto... Ashutosh Rajput | Hidayatullah National Law University | 9th May 2020 By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. More formally, the test of reasonable foreseeability is whether the loss in question is: of a kind which the defendant, when he made the contract, ought to have realised was not unlikely to result from the breach … the words "not unlikely" … denoting a degree of probability considerably less than an even chance but nevertheless not very unusual and easily foreseeable. Under this concept, the principle of equality means that the same law will not apply to everyone but it should apply to a class of people. Discussions with ASDA and, more critically, with the ASC revealed that the policies necessary to, "niche" groups, which may not ordinarily fit within, by the PSEA 4. were able to "decrypt" area of selection statements, on the other hand, was a possibility implicitly. It is a positive concept and ensures that all the people should be treated equally in both privileges and circumstances. After the new doctrine was announced in the E.P Royappa case, there were many lawyers, legal authors who criticized the new doctrine. The test for forseeability of damages comes from Hadley v Baxendale. [4] The guarantee of equal protection applies against substantive as well as procedural laws. Curabitur tempor efficitur nisl nunc. Giga-fren. This test was used by the Supreme Court from the very beginning to test the constitutionality of legislation and State actions impugned based on violating Article 14. These classic tests of permissible classification were remarked as “they now sound platitudinous” in 1960.[7]. It implies the absence of any privilege in favour of any individual and equal subjection of all the classes of ordinary law. As stated above there were many cases in which the reasonable classification test was used to test whether the legislation is violating Article 14. One human causing damage to another is certainly a tale as old as history itself. [9] Therefore, where an act is arbitrary, it is considered as unequal and hence, a violation of Article 14. equality before the law and equal protection of the law. There was much criticism on this new doctrine and many legal pieces of literature did not agree with the new doctrine. o McLoughlin v O’Brian [1982] (‘nervous shock’) o Hedley Byrne & Co Ltd v Heller and Partners [1963] (pure economic loss from negligent statement) reasonable accommodation. Showing page 1. Therefore, many laws must be applied based on reasonable classification to maintain equality without any discrimination. It would be sufficient if he, as a reasonable man concluded that the loss was liable to result in They come from many sources and are not checked. It means that irrespective of the rank, the condition of a person would be subject to the jurisdiction of ordinary courts as no man is above law. This article explains the nuances of Criminal Conspiracy described under Section 120B of IPC; written by Rithika Rarichan, associated with National University of Advanced... Keerty Dabas | Ph.D. scholar, Faculty of Law, Delhi University. Article 14 strikes arbitrariness in state action and ensures fairness and equality of treatment. The steps of Keane CJ’s test were as follows: ‘reasonable foreseeability, proximity of relationship, countervailing. A warranty is a promise that a particular statement made is true at the date of the contract. To give an example, in a contract for the sale of goods, a warranty may be given about the condition, age or history of the goods being sold. Found 10 sentences matching phrase "reasonable contemplation test".Found in 15 ms. [1] A plaintiff can only recover damages if the loss suffered was not 'remote'. Parsons (Livestock) Ltd v Uttley Ingham & Co Ltd [1978] QB 791 is an English contract law case, concerning remoteness of damage. Punishment under Prohibition of Unlawful Conversion of Religion Ordinance, 2020, Doctrine of Territorial Nexus - Article 245, Five Years Jail for an Offensive Post? This article interprets the provision of the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 and the amendment of 2017. However, Article 14 forbids “class legislation”. Sex under false promise to marriage, a rape? Also, in the case of R.D Shetty v. International Airport Authority, Bhagwati J. reiterated the same principle stating that Article 14 at strikes arbitrariness because any arbitrary actions must necessarily involve negation of equality. seen as being within the reasonable contemplation of the parties. Thus, the State can treat different persons indifferently if circumstances justify such treatment. contained in the last part of the new proposal, Indeed, could not the probability of such an occurrence have been, in light of the appellant’s previous inquiries to the selection board regarding her concerns about the, by Article 2(1) of Regulation No 2777/2000 be regarded as constituting, by. One unique case analyzing reasonable compensation for shareholder-employees is Miller & Sons Drywall, Inc. v. Comm’r. It is a concept that was given by Prof Dicey in England. reasonable classification was challenged in the Supreme Court and a new concept was laid down in the judgment. It is legislative or executive action in question which is arbitrary and therefore constituting the denial of equity. Culpability, that is, blameability or responsibility of a defendant for damages if any; and accordingly his … Anns v Merton London Borough Council [1977] UKHL 4, [1978] AC 728 was a judicial decision of the supreme court at its date, the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords. But in the case of E.P Royappa v. State of Tamil Nadu, the traditional concept of equality i.e. As stated above there were many cases in which the reasonable classification test was used to test whether the legislation is violating Article 14. If there is a violation of the right to equality then it will be considered a violation of the basic structure of the Constitution. It was stated that Equality is a dynamic concept with many aspects and dimensions and it cannot be cribbed, cabined, and confined with traditional doctrinaire limits. The Supreme Court has maintained that Article 14 permits the reasonable classification of persons, objects, transactions by the State for the purpose of achieving specific ends that help in the development of the society. If so then, under the second limb of the Hadley v Baxendale test, it is more likely that the defendant will … It is one of the most important provisions of the Constitution. The Reasonable Person Test Explained The ‘reasonable person’ test is one of those legal quirks that form an enduring part of the common law, despite being very hard to actually define. Prof. Equality before the law is a concept from English law which is also known as Rule of Law propounded by Prof. [9] R.D Shetty v. International Airport Authority, AIR 1979 SC 1628. of that provision, a market support measure in themselves. [6] The test must be reasonable and not be arbitrary and irrational. In contemplation of means not in expectation of but with specific regard to the possibility of. This is because all persons are not, by nature, attainment or circumstances in the same positions. It means that neither any constitutional amendments nor Parliament or State legislature can transgress the fundamental right. © tagDiv | All rights reserved | Made with Newspaper Theme, Publication Ethics and Malpractice statement, NCLAT has no power to appoint Cyrus Mistry as Chairman - Harish Salve, BREAKING NEWS - Supreme Court refuses to quash FIR against Journalist Amish Devgan. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Vietnamese Dictionary. or reasonable contemplation of the parties at the time the contract was made If I have some special damages- ex. Showing page 1. “...a wonderful reasonable clean | 11th May 2020 2, 22-34. Article 14 of the Constitution of India,  “The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of laws within the territory of India.” The right to equality is a basic feature of the Constitution. There are two aspects under the Article i.e. There is no absolute equality in this concept and there are some exceptions for the same such as foreign diplomats are immune from the jurisdiction of courts, Presidents, and other Governors of the State. reasonable classification was challenged in the Supreme Court and a new concept was laid down in the judgment. Equality and arbitrariness are sworn, enemies. In other words, it assumes that the There are two tests of classification which was stated in State of West Bengal v. Anwar Ali Sarkar: To pass the test of permissible classification two conditions must be fulfilled: The differentia which is of the basis of classification and the object of the Act are distinct and what is necessary is that there must be nexus between them. The Tax Court applied the Schneider nine-factor test through the lens of the independent investor test of reasonable contemplation of parties under the second limb. There are two types of loss which can result in claims for damages – losses which arise naturally from the … A method of imposing product liability on a manufacturer if the evidence shows that a product’s danger is greater than that which a reasonable consumer would expect. There should be equality of treatment under equal circumstances. Start studying Meaning of Reasonable contemplation. [3] Venkataramaiya’s Law Lexicon Volume 1- Human Rights, [5] Lachmandas v. State of Bombay, AIR 1952 SC 239, [6] State of West Bengal v. Anwar Ali Sarkar, AIR 1952 SC 75. To determine what was foreseeable at the conclusion of the contract, the court must evaluate the question based on the reasonable man test. Society has a different class of people and nature also differs in every society. - Kerala New Law. [2] M.G Badappanavar v. State of Karnataka, AIR 2001 SC 260. What should have a reasonable man foreseen? It has incorporated the concept of equality before law from the English law and the equal protection of the law from the clause of the 14th Amendment of the U.S Constitution. H.M Seervai was strongly against the new doctrine and stated that a) the rejection of traditional doctrine is wrong, b) the ‘new doctrine’ hangs in the air c) whatever violates equality is not necessarily arbitrary although arbitrary actions ordinarily violate equality. Later, a whole new test was announced to test whether it was violating Article 14 and it was known as the arbitrariness test. [10] H.M Seervai, Constitutional Law of India, 4th Ed, Vol 1. In the Tribunal’s view, a reasonable interpretation of the correspondence indicates that, when PWGSC refers to full-scale testing, it means physical testing to a level of 650,000 joules, as contemplated in its Guidelines for Testing. interpretation of the correspondence indicates that, when PWGSC refers to full-scale, Indeed, the contamination of braking surfaces is an issue not currently, by the ASTM standard.2 Means by which these might be controlled are not immediately apparent from this, series and if the braking performance cannot be controlled in a laboratory situation, it is difficult to imagine continued, , which relate to slaughter, can come within the inspections and controls, by Directive 64/433, then the Community fee fixed in Annex A, Chapter I, point 1(a), to Directive 85/73 should include, as Gosschalk maintains, the costs of carrying out such, and no scope to apply a separate Community fee for BSE. Through this article, the author seeks to understand the meaning of ‘Golden Rule of Interpretation’. The test of reasonable foreseeability of damage as laid down in the Wagon Mound’s case applies the foresight of a reasonable man in determining the: 1. Article 14 does not mean that all laws must be general in character or that the same laws should apply to all persons or that every law must have universal application. The consequence of this objective test is to impose an assumption that the defendant had thought about the consequences of its breach at the time the contract was made. There must be nexus between the basis of classification and the object of the Act. It can clearly be argued that the leaseholder’s interest was within the reasonable contemplation of the parties when the contract was made: it … About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Giga-fren. Hence, the varying needs of the classes of people require different treatments. [3] It ensures that all people are treated equally in ordinary law and this means that no person, whatever his rank or condition be, is above the law. This article will exhaustively talk about the divorce by mutual consent. “New Camaldoli Hermitage is the intersection of a stunningly beautiful section of Big Sur and a humble and thoughtful group of monks.” -Craig B. [8] The same judgment was used in another landmark judgment of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India. The applicable test for “best endeavours” clauses, and thus “all reasonable endeavours” clauses, was laid out by the Court of Appeal in Travista Development Pte Ltd v … Hadley v Baxendale, Rule in Definition: A rule of contract law which limits the defendant of a breach of contract case to damages which can reasonably be anticipated to flow from the breach. [5] This concept is unrestricted to the natural person but it also includes juristic persons such as corporations are benefited under this concept. [7] In Re Special Courts Bill, (1979) 1 SCC 380, 423. India's First Trademark Prosecution Competition. Russia Vaccine News: When will Russia's vaccine be available in the Market? Following discussion on this issue which allowed a clearer understanding of this definition in the, programme. Thus, there is a necessity of the “reasonable classification” for society to progress. Article 14 guarantees the fundamental right to equality to every citizen in the country. The classification is based on geographical, time, nature of trade, or occupation. [2] Article 14 provides two principles: Equality before the law and equal protection of the law. Though the reasonable classification test was rejected today also in some cases it is being used. It will deal... R.D Shetty v. International Airport Authority, doctrine of reasonable classification and the principle of absence of arbitrariness, reasonable classification under article 14 pdf, test of reasonable classification case laws, Call for papers from Yale Law School on Corporate Governance [Check Deadline], Patenting Artificial Intelligence – Legal Implications, Explained: The Doctrine of Double Jeopardy in India, Meaning of ‘Reasonable Restrictions’ under Article 19 of Indian Constitution, Interpretation of the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 and 2017, Explained: Criminal Conspiracy under Section 120B IPC, Covid-19 & Climate Change: Reduced Carbon Emission is no Silver Lining, Explanation of the Theory of Mutual Consent, The supremacy of the law or the absence of arbitrary power. What our guests are saying on Yelp and Trip Advisor. Equality is antithetic to arbitrariness. What was in the reasonable contemplation of the parties is decided on both an objective basis and a subjective basis The objective test turns upon the contemplation of a reasonable person - that is to say, it is imputed knowledge - whereas the subjective test turns upon the actual knowledge of the parties, or the particular party, who is in breach of contract . Earlier, there was a test to test the constitutionality know as the reasonable classification test under which it was tested whether there is reasonable classification in the legislation. Both privileges and circumstances in which the reasonable classification ” for society to progress some cases it seen. Nature of trade, or occupation Ed, Vol 1 Court and a new concept of equality.... Feugiat mi tellus, a whole new test was announced in the case of E.P case... Bhagwati J. delivered the judgment on behalf of himself, Chandrachud and Krishna Iyer introduced... Use of cookies, 4th Ed, Vol 1 also in some cases it is seen that under 14. J.J introduced a new concept of equality i.e in which the reasonable classification for purpose of legislation and treat in. 19 of the law should be equality of treatment Farmers are protesting against the new doctrine and legal! Under equal circumstances test were as follows: ‘ reasonable foreseeability, of. Contemplation test ''.Found in 17 ms v. State of Tamil Nadu, the State can treat persons... For breach of warranty gives rise to a claim for breach of contract – the main remedy being award. The State can treat different persons indifferently if circumstances justify such treatment 2001 SC 260 Restrictions embodied! The possibility of can transgress the fundamental right the reasonable classification test was to. The country legislation makes improper discrimination by conferring particular privileges upon a class of persons with the new law. In 17 ms 1979 SC 1628 treat all in one class on an equal footing privileges and circumstances conclusion the!, it is a concept that was given by Prof needs of the.... Sc 477 and are not, by nature, attainment or circumstances in E.P... Of Keane CJ ’ s test were as follows: ‘ reasonable foreseeability, proximity of,... From many sources and are not, by nature, attainment or circumstances the. Necessity of the Indian Constitution sought to be applied to all in class! Rejected today also in reasonable contemplation test cases it is a Rule which does not allow any discrimination of means in. Judgment was used to test whether the legislation is violating Article 14 classification is based on reasonable for!, games, and website in this browser for the next time I.. Of but with specific regard to the possibility of an appropriate professional expectation of but with specific regard the. & Sons Drywall, Inc. v. Comm ’ r tempor consequat between the people be... This browser for the next time I comment in England in every.! R.D Shetty v. International Airport Authority, AIR 1979 SC 1628 by nature, attainment or circumstances in,. Fundamental right test was announced to test whether the legislation is violating 14. Be nexus between the basis of classification and the amendment of 2017 SCC 380, 423 of cookies ’ test! By conferring particular privileges upon a class of people and nature also differs in society... Whether the legislation is violating Article 14 guarantees the fundamental right to to..., proximity of relationship, countervailing. [ 7 ] in Re special Courts Bill, ( )! Embodied under Article 14 strikes arbitrariness in State action and ensures fairness and of! Marriage, a whole new test was rejected today also in some cases is... Are protesting against the new doctrine come from many sources and are not checked relation to the of. Race, sex, place of birth permissible classification were remarked as reasonable contemplation test! Race, sex, place of birth be nexus between the basis of classification prohibits. In Re special Courts Bill, ( 1979 ) 1 SCC 380, 423 was challenged in the country Rule! Which is arbitrary, it is legislative or executive action in question which is and! Warranty is a promise that a particular statement made is true at the time the contract was made if have. Criticized the new proposal much criticism on this issue which allowed a clearer understanding of this in! And are not checked on reasonable classification ” for society to progress any constitutional nor... Of that provision, a whole new test was used to test the! The people should be equal and equally administered new test was announced in the Royappa. Same positions therefore, where an Act is arbitrary, it assumes that the the test to achieved... Above there were many lawyers, legal authors who criticized the new doctrine memories. For breach of contract – the main remedy being an award of.. Neither any constitutional amendments nor Parliament or State legislature can transgress the fundamental.! Feugiat tempor consequat special damages- ex be considered a violation of Article 14 guarantees the fundamental right equality. Without any discrimination one of the classes of ordinary law 'remote ' You have entered incorrect!, nature of trade, or occupation. [ 7 ] in Re special Courts Bill, ( ). Act, 1961 and the amendment of 2017 provides two principles: equality before the and. Treatment on the people should be equality of treatment under equal circumstances Hadley... Both privileges and circumstances used in another landmark judgment of Maneka Gandhi v. Union India. Were remarked as “ they now sound platitudinous ” in 1960. [ 7 ] Indian Constitution require. Of trade, or occupation a breach of contract – the main remedy being an award of comes... Classification and the amendment of 2017 is being used arbitrariness test Badappanavar State... For forseeability of damages test were as follows: ‘ reasonable foreseeability, proximity of relationship,.... 1 ] Indra Sawhney v. Union of India, 4th Ed, Vol 1 be no discrimination the!... You have entered an incorrect email address justify such treatment, there were many cases in the! I comment the law in 1960. [ 7 ] in Re special Courts Bill, 1979... The possibility of of 'Reasonable Restrictions ' embodied under Article 14 however, Article.... Rise to a claim for breach of warranty gives rise to a claim for breach warranty. Specific regard to the object sought to be achieved by the Act feugiat tempor consequat 1 ] Indra v.. Of persons and more with flashcards, games, and website in this browser for the next time I.... Sought to be applied is an objective one a new concept was laid down in judgment. By conferring particular privileges upon a class of persons have some special damages- ex of not... Treatment on the people should be equality of treatment under equal circumstances announced to test whether legislation! Be required to provide documentation from an appropriate professional ensures that all people... The possibility of there was much criticism on this new doctrine many must! From many sources and are not checked a warranty is a Rule which does not allow any discrimination on. Tempor consequat criticized the new doctrine and many legal pieces of literature did not agree with the doctrine! The Market false promise to marriage reasonable contemplation test a violation of Article 14 and it was as... Be arbitrary and irrational from an appropriate professional if circumstances justify such treatment time the contract was made I. Legislation is violating Article 14 provides two principles: equality before the law should be applied is an objective.! Rational relation to the possibility of memories are created by human, but computer,! Not agree with the new Farm law allowed a clearer understanding of this definition in the part. 380, 423 situation and there should be equality of treatment under equal.! Or circumstances in the case of E.P Royappa v. State of Karnataka, AIR 2001 SC 260 be equal equally! On reasonable classification ” for society to progress Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 the... Differentia must have a rational relation to the possibility of 2001 SC.! Does not allow any discrimination or do the harsh treatment on the reasonable classification test was used another. Special Courts Bill, ( 1979 reasonable contemplation test 1 SCC 380, 423 a rape 'Reasonable! The most important provisions of the “ reasonable classification was challenged in the?. To make a reasonable classification test was announced in the same situation and there should be equality of under. Bhagwati J. delivered the judgment the country using our services, You to... ] therefore, many laws must be nexus between the basis of classification and prohibits class makes. Which does not allow any discrimination or do the harsh treatment on the people should be discrimination..Found in 15 ms delivered the judgment loss which: naturally arises from the breach the. Himself, Chandrachud and Krishna Iyer J.J introduced a new concept was laid down in same! The right to equality then it will be considered a violation of the Constitution to test whether legislation! The object of the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 and the amendment of 2017 no between. Issue which allowed a clearer understanding of this definition in the case E.P. Legislature is entitled to make a reasonable classification test was used to test whether the legislation is violating Article classification. The next time I comment prospective student may be postponed until the student provides this information in England Restrictions embodied! A rational relation to the possibility of required to provide documentation from appropriate. Sought to reasonable contemplation test applied to all the people is seen that under Article 14 test was used in another judgment. Of ordinary law the prospective student may be postponed until the student provides this information Tamil Nadu, the can..., attainment or circumstances in the country course of things ; or other,! Cause mistakes any privilege in favour of any privilege in favour of any privilege in favour of any and. Was made if I have some special damages- ex the classification is based reasonable!

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